A major theological difference between Protestantism and Catholicism is the question of transubstantiationor the literal transformation of the Communion wafer and wine into the body and blood of Christ, though both Lutheran and Reformed Christians affirmed the real presence of Christ in the Eucharistthe former as a sacramental union and the latter as a pneumatic presence.
Many traditional iconographies considered without adequate scriptural foundation were in effect prohibited, as was any inclusion of classical pagan elements in religious art, and almost all nudity, including that of the infant Jesus.
Over the centuries the church, particularly in the office of the papacyhad become deeply involved in the political life of western Europe. Based on the notion that Jesus and the saints had built up a treasury of merit that could be shared with worthy Christians, the indulgence at first applied only to penalties imposed by the church on earth.
In obedience to the New Testament, they repudiated swearing oaths and recourse to violence, whether at the behest of a magistrate or in war, respectively.
Genre and landscape[ edit ] After the early years of the reformation, artists in Protestant areas painted far fewer religious subjects for public display, although there was a conscious effort to develop a Protestant iconography of Bible illustration in book illustrations and prints.
The Hutteritesfollowers of Jakob Hutter diedwere allowed to establish themselves on the estates of tolerant Moravian nobles who accepted excellent craftsmanship in field and shop in lieu of military service. Because of corruption in the.
Protestant and Catholic Reformations. The Catholic Church of the Counter-Reformation era grew more spiritual, more literate and more educated.
The best known example is the new Spanish Netherlands essentially modern Belgiumwhich had been the centre of Protestantism in the Netherlands but became initially exclusively Catholic after the Spanish drove the Protestants to the north, where they established the United Provinces.
If one could achieve such assurance, an enormous release of energy could be directed to the glory of God and the erection on Earth of a holy commonwealth. There was also a violent propaganda war fought partly with popular prints by both sides; these were often highly scurrilous caricatures of the other side and their doctrines.
During the Reformation a great divergence arose between the Catholic Church and the Protestant Reformers of the north regarding the content and style of art work. Eastern Europe offered a seedbed for even more radical varieties of Protestantism, because kings were weak, nobles strong, and cities few, and because religious pluralism had long existed.
Scripture Alone Luther and other reformers turned to the Bible as the only reliable source of instruction as opposed to the teachings of the Church. Page 1 of 4.
Simony the selling of Church offices and nepotism favoritism based on family relationships were rampant. When asked for a simple answer he replied: After this first stage of the Reformation, following the excommunication of Luther and condemnation of the Reformation by the Pope, the work and writings of John Calvin were influential in establishing a loose consensus among various groups in Switzerland, ScotlandHungary, Germany and elsewhere.
The most vigorous program was set up by the Society of Jesus, commonly called the Jesuits. Called Anabaptiststhey remained a marginal phenomenon in the 16th century but survived—despite fierce persecution—as Mennonites and Hutterites into the 21st century. And that these things may be the more faithfully observed, the holy Synod ordains, that no one be allowed to place, or cause to be placed, any unusual image, in any place, or church, howsoever exempted, except that image have been approved of by the bishop However, he found a more positive place for law within the Christian community than did Luther.
Other groups In Holland Menno Simonsz c. The winehe asserted, should be given to the laity along with the bread, as in the Hussite practice. Historical Dictionary of Calvinism. Between andLuther published more works than the next 17 most prolific reformers combined.
The normal course would have been to excommunicate him which indeed occurred on January 3, and then turn him over to the political authorities for execution, but Frederick the Wise insisted that he be given a fair hearing. The Anabaptists also believed in the possibility of a Christian society whose members were marked both by the conversion experience and by a highly disciplined deportment.
Further waves of "Counter-Reformation art" occurred when areas formerly Protestant were again brought under Catholic rule. The Lutherans had to face it earlier when the Diet of Augsburg in gave them a year in which to submit on pain of war.
For the purposes of this analysis, Anglicans are included in the broadly defined Protestant category, along with the other churches that broke with Rome starting in the 16th century. The uneasy political situation in Europe also helped to extend the religious revolt because many local rulers wanted their independence from the emperor Charles V.
Popes and Cardinals often lived more like kings than spiritual leaders. Their conscientious administrations removed much of the incentive to revolt.
Medieval Art and Architecture after the Middle Ages. The most traumatic era in the protestant reformation in the 16th century the entire history of Roman Catholicism.
The Conspiracy of Amboise failed.Watch video · Martin Luther (November 10, to February 18, ) was a German monk who began the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century, becoming one of the most influential and controversial figures in. The Protestant Reformation was a major 16th century European movement aimed initially at reforming the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church.
Its religious aspects were supplemented by ambitious political rulers who wanted to extend their power and control at the expense of the Church. Protestant Reformation - Words Tia P. Professor William Cook European History September 23, The Protestant Reformation The protestant reformation was a religious and intellectual disturbance that broke up the Catholic Church in Europe in the 16th century.
May 09, · Thesis: This exhibit demonstrates how the Protestant Reformation of the 16 th century significantly impacted the Roman Catholic religion in Europe. Block 1. My first block provides support for how the Protestant Reformation began on October 31st, with. The Counter Reformation.
Calvinism: THE REFORMATION. Europe's Search For Stability. One of the greatest of all revolutions was the 16th-century religious revolt known as the Reformation. This stormy, often brutal, conflict separated the Christians of Western Europe into Protestants and Catholics.
The Protestant Reformation (Europe, 16th Century). Prior to the Protestant Reformation, pretty much everyone in Europe was a Roman protestant reformation Catholic The Protestant Reformation is a term used to describe a series of events that happened in the 16th century in the Christian Church.Download